Sunday, March 2, 2014

Install Linux Mint 16 on VirtualBox

The following installation instruction is to install Linux Mint 16 Cinnamon 64-bit version to VirtualBox.

Setting up Virtual Machine
On VirtualBox select "New". Enter the name of virtual machine. Click "Continue".


Set your memory allocation for this vm. Click "Continue".


Select an existing virtual hard drive or create a new one. Default is creating a new one. Click "Create".


If you are creating a new virtual hard drive, select the hard drive file type. Select the default. Click "Continue".


Select "Dynamically allocated" and click "Continue".


Name the virtual hard drive and select the virtual hard drive size. Click "Create".


You are back to the virtual machine manager screen. You can right click the virtual machine you've just created and change the setting. Goto System, select Processor and set the number of processor to be used.


One recommended change is to increase the video RAM and enable 3d acceleration. See below.



Installing Linux Mint 16
Click "Start" to start the virtual machine.


You need to select the start-up disk. Select the ISO image of Linux Mint 16. The system will launch Linux Mint.


Click "Install Linux Mint". (Silver disc on the desktop). Select the language of your choice. Click "Continue".


Click "Continue".


Select "Erase disk and install Linux Mint" and click "Install Now".


Select your time zone. Click "Continue".


Select the default keyboard and click "Continue".


Create the username and set a new password. Click "Continue".


The installation begins.



Once the installation is completed you need to restart the system.


The login screen is shown as below.


The desktop with welcome screen is shown below.


*Please remember to run system update for patches.

VirtualBox Guest Additions

Please note that there is NO Need to install VirtualBox Guest Additions as the system already included the guest additions. You can use the following command to check if guest additions have been installed.

apt-cache policy virtualbox-guest-dkms
apt-cache policy virtualbox-guest-utils
apt-cache policy virtualbox-guest-X11



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Monday, February 3, 2014

Installation Guide for Fedora 20

The following guide contains the installation procedure for Fedora 20. This procedure was tested on a HP laptop with dual core AMD processor and 4GB of RAM using a USB external hard disk. I boot the Fedora Live from a DVD and install the entire OS on an external (USB) hard disk.

For installation of Fedora 20 on virtual machine, please refer to Install Fedora 20 on VirtualBox with Guest Additions. For netinstall, refer to Install Fedora 20 using Netinstall.

Creation of Media

This time I burn a DVD from the ISO. If you prefer to create an USB drive instead, the procedure on creating bootable USB can be found on the official Fedora documentation here. For details of creating a bootable USB drive, please refer to my previous post here on creating USB drive.


Installing Fedora 20

Start your computer. You might need to press extra key at the beginning so that you can boot Fedora 20 from DVD or USB drive. In my case, a HP laptop, I need to press Esc and then F9. Most other computer uses F9 or F10 or F11. Please refer to the user guide of your computer.

Once you've bootup Fedora 20. You are given a choice to install into a hard disk.


Click Install to Hard Drive. The first screen of installation wizard is shown below. Select the language of your choice. Click "Continue".


The next screen shows an installation summary. On the installation summary, you'll notice that there is a warning sign on installation destination. You need to confirm the installation target drive. Click on INSTALLATION DESTINATION.


There are 2 disk available. I will be installing Fedora 20 on WD1600JS. This is an external USB hard disk. Click to select the disk you want to configure. Click Done on the top left corner.


A dialog box appear. In this dialog box, you can choose to let the system configure the partition for you, you just need to specify the partition scheme. You can also configure the partition manually. This time, I decided to configure the partitions manually. Click Continue. (For new Linux users who want to know more about Linux partitions, please refer to my post Linux Partitions)


In this summary screen for manual partition, click + on the lower left corner to create a new partition. I will remove the old partitions from Fedora 19 and create a new partitions for Fedora 20. Click - to remove partitions. WARNINGS: It is very IMPORTANT that you remove the correct partitions. Removing wrong partitions will result in LOSS DATA.


Once I have removed the old partitions, the partition information looks like the screen below. In my case I have a NTFS partitions for data sharing.


To create a new partition click +. The first partition is the boot partition. 500MB is sufficient.


The next partition is swap partition. The recommend size for swap file is two times of your system RAM. However, due to RAM size getting larger and swap is seldom utilized. It is recommended to give the swap file 4GB of space, even if you have 16GB of RAM.


The last partition is the root partition, you can use the entire free disk space to allocate to the root partition. Leave the capacity blank.


The summary of partition is as follows. Click Done when you complete your configuration.


The next dialog box shows the summary of all your actions. Please note that at this point the actual changes has not been made. If you create the partition wrongly, you can always go back and change them. Click Accept Changes to commit the changes.


You will be shown the Configuration Summary. Review the summary page and change any setting such as time zone or keyboard. Click Begin Installation.


Once the installation starts, in the meantime, you can set the root password and add user. Click ROOT PASSWORD.


Enter the root password and click Done when ready. Then, click USER CREATION.


Enter the user name and set the user password. Make sure you check Make this user administrator. Click Done when ready.


Wait for the installation to complete.


Click Quit on the lower right corner when installation is complete.


You can reboot the system. The desktop is shown as below:


The following dialog box will be shown for the first time. Select English and click Next.


This allows you to add different input sources. Click Next.



This dialog box allows you to configure online accounts. Click Next.


Click Start using Fedora


Finally, the Help page will appear. If you are new to Fedora, I suggest you take some time to watch the video, otherwise you can close it.


This completes the installation.


Updating the System

Click Activities and type in Terminal on the search box. Launch the terminal.

Use the following command to update the system

sudo yum update

Once the update is complete, restart the machine. Usually there is no need to restart the machine after the update. However, you need to restart the system if you've just update a new kernel.

After updating the system, you might want to install addition software. Please refer to Fedora 20 Post Installation Software Configuration Guide




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Sunday, February 2, 2014

Using Fedora 19, 20 Minimal Install

When using Fedora 19 or Fedora 20 minimal install, you'll notice that some old command doesn't work anymore. Listed below are some of the changes and the essential commands that you may need.

Networking

The common network command ifconfig was replaced by ip. Previously you would use the command ifconfig -a to list all the active and inactive network device in your system. Now you can use ip link or ip addr.

Old command to display all network devices (Deprecated)
ifconfig -a

New Command to display network devices
ip link show
ip link show up

To activate a network device, you can still use the old command ifup and ifdown. You can also use the new command ip link

Command to enable or disable network devices
sudo ifup <device>
sudo ifdown <device>
sudo ip link set <device> up
sudo ip link set <device> down

Network Devices Naming

There is a change in naming network devices. An Ethernet port previously known as eth0 is change to p2p1 or p2s1. WiFi is named wlo1. This is done by the module biosdevname. To disable this naming scheme, you can set biosdevname=0 on the kernel boot command line or yum erase biosdevname.

Systemd/udev also implement a backup naming scheme when biosdevname is not installed. It change eth0 to enp0s3. This system will not activate when biosdevname is available. To disable this naming scheme set net.ifnames=0 at kernel boot command line.

System INIT

Sysvinit and inittab is being replace by systemd. To manage system services use the command systemctl. Use the command man systemctl to learn how to manage system services

GRUB

Grub was replaced by grub2. Originally we can manually configure the boot file at /boot/grub; now we can only make changes at /etc/default/grub. After the changes is made, you must run the command grub-update (ubuntu) or grub2-mkconfig(Fedora) with -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg.

To stop grub2 from configuring other operating system use the command su -. Then, go to /etc/grub.d there are scripts prefixed 00, 10, 20, 30. You need to disable the script that is probing on other operating system. The scripts that probe other OS and add the OS into the grub file is script 30. Use the command chmod -x 30_os-prober to disable the script. Remember to run the grub2-mkconfig for the changes to take effect.

Remove Splash

I usually remove the splash screen from the kernel boot command. Previously I would remove the phrase "rhgb" and "quiet" from the grub file /boot/grub. Under grub2, open the file /etc/default/grub. Remove the phrase "rhgb" and "quiet" from the command line. Finally execute the following command for the grub to configure. grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg.


Note:

These are some changes that I've encountered since Fedora 19. It is not comprehensive. If you like to suggest any changes please comment below. Thank you.

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Saturday, February 1, 2014

Install Fedora 20 using Netinstall

This is the procedure for installing Fedora 20 using NetInstall method. For full installation of Fedora 20 on a computer, please refer to Installation Guide for Fedora 20. For installation of Fedora 20 on virtual machine, please refer to Install Fedora 20 on VirtualBox with Guest Additions. For Compiz fan, please refer to the post Install Mate Desktop with Compiz on Fedora 20.

This method allows you to download and install the latest software package from the repository, there is no need for software update after installation. Please note that it will take longer time for the installation to complete because the installer need to download every single package during installation.

I usually use this method to install minimal Fedora 20 on a virtual machine since it does not take up very much hard disk space and memory.

Creation of Media or Setting Up VirtualBox
For creating a bootable USB, please refer to the official Fedora documentation here. You can also refer to my post here on creating USB drive. For creating of VirtualBox environment please refer to my post mentioned earlier. Depending on what you are installing, the configuration on virtual machine is different depending on the software packages you choose. For minimal install, 1GB of RAM with 4GB disk space is more than enough. The total disk space for minimal install is usually less than 1GB.


Installing Fedora 20

Start your computer. You might need to press extra key at the beginning so that you can boot Fedora 20 Netinstall iso from USB drive. For virtual machine user, just click start. On the start screen, type "I" to install Fedora 20. 


Once you've bootup Fedora 20, it will bring you straight to the installation screen. Select the language. Click "Continue".


On the installation summary, you'll notice that there are warning signs on various item. You need to wait for a while for the installer to configure the software repository and available software.


Once the software repository is configured, there is only one warning sign on INSTALLATION DESTINATION.


Unlike other installation method, net install allows you to choose installation source and software selection. Leave the installation source to the closest mirror. Click SOFTWARE SELECTION.

Under software selection, you have the choice of installing different type of desktop environment or basic desktop. You can also install packages only for servers. Only the right hand side (Add Ons for Selected Environment), you can select additional software packages. In this case, I choose Minimal Install. Click Done when ready.


Please note that you need to confirm the installation target drive. Click on INSTALLATION DESTINATION


Since I am using virtual machine. There is only one hard disk which is checked already. If you have more than one hard disk, click to select the disk you want to configure. Click Done on the top left corner.


Once you click "Done", a dialog box will appear. In this dialog box, you can choose to let the system configure the partition for you. You just need to specify the partition scheme. You can also configure the partition manually.  For servers it is recommended to use LVM partitions. For desktop we recommends Standard partitions. You can also choose to encrypt the entire partitions. Click Continue when done.


You will be shown the Configuration Summary. Review the summary page and change any setting such as time zone or keyboard. Click Begin Installation when ready.


Once the installation starts, in the meantime, you can set the root password and add user. Click ROOT PASSWORD.


Enter the root password and click Done when ready. Click USER CREATION.


Enter the user name and set the user password. Make sure you check Make this user administrator. Click Done when ready.


Wait for the installation to complete.


Click Reboot on the lower right corner when installation is complete.


The login screen is shown below:


There is no need to update the computer since all the latest software are downloaded from the server. However, you might want to install addition software. Please refer to Fedora 20 Post Installation Software Configuration Guide.

Note:
Although this procedure show a minimal install using netinstall, you can configure any software packages you want during the pre-installation stage. Please be aware that depending on your bandwidth and the software packages you choose, it may take a long time to complete the installation if you choose to install many software. 


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